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The Discovery of a Rapidly Shrinking Planet

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The Discovery of a Rapidly Shrinking Planet - After going through several stages of the screening process, we are finally able to enhance the article we have collected with data from reliable sources on the discovery of a rapidly shrinking alien planet.

In this universe, there are several planets outside the solar system of the Milky Way that are unique and rare. Astronomers call these planets hot-Neptune or Hot Neptune. Of all the 3,869 exoplanets that have been discovered, only a few are hot-Neptune.

Now, recently, astronomers discovered that there is a planet that is shrinking by itself! Is the exoplanet Gliese 3470 b (GJ 3470 b). The planet is losing its atmosphere at an extreme rate, faster than any other exoplanet has observed.

1. The puzzle of why a planet can shrink

Space science media Hubblesite (13/12) reports that looking at how fast the planet GJ 3470 b is shrinking due to evaporation, it gives astronomers a hypothesis about why the number of planets that are considered hot-Neptune is so few. You see, the planets shrink into mini-Neptune, one of the most common types of exoplanets found.

"The question then becomes, where did the hot Neptune go?" said astronomer Vincent Bourrier of the University of Geneva, Switzerland, as quoted by Hubblesite. "If we examine the size of the planet and its distance from the star, there must be desert and holes in the process. That's the puzzle."

2. Comparison with previous findings

A hot-Neptune planet is indeed in the form of a hot giant planet with a large mass like Neptune or Uranus. However, these hot-Neptune planets are closer to their host star than Earth and the sun. Given its proximity, astronomers recorded the atmospheric temperature as high as 927 degrees Celsius (1,700 Fahrenheit).

Previously, astronomers discovered the exoplanet Gliese 436 b which experienced the same symptoms of evaporation. However, the rate of evaporation is not as fast as the exoplanet GJ 3470 b that was recently discovered.

Astronomers have found that the distance between GJ 3470 b and its parent star is the same as GJ 436 b. However, GJ 3470 b is losing its atmosphere 100 times faster than GJ 436 b. This happens because the planet GJ 3470 b orbits a star that is much younger than the star GJ 436 b. The star GJ 3470 b is clearly still emitting much hotter radiation.

Also Read: The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions

3. Can shrink to the size of the planet Earth

Through the Hubble telescope, astronomers have found that there are hydrogen clouds entering the planet GJ3470 b. If that continues, planet GJ 3470 b could end up as a mini-Neptune, or even the size of Earth.

"It's like smoke from a firearm. Hot-Neptune planets could lose most of their total mass," said physicist and planetary scientist David Sing of Johns Hopkins University.

"GJ 3470b is losing more mass than any other planet we've seen so far. In just a few billion years from now, half of this planet may be lost."

4. Understand the behavior of the planet and its environment

As quoted by the media Phys, David Sing estimates that GJ 3470 b may have lost up to 35 percent of its total mass and, within a few billion years, all the surrounding gas will be lost and will eventually leave only a rocky core.

"We're starting to better understand how planets form and what properties affect their overall makeup," said Sing.

"Our goal with this study and the overall PanCET program is to take a broad look at the atmospheres of these planets to determine how each planet is affected by its own environment. By comparing different planets, we can begin to collect a bigger picture of the way they develop. "

The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions

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The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions - The following is an article that discusses collisions between solar systems that trigger the formation of the solar system which has been summarized from reliable sources.

Astronomers already know that the smaller Sagittarius galaxy repeatedly crashes into the disk of the Milky Way as it orbits around the galactic core. This is caused by the force of gravity. In previous research, the Sagittarius galaxy, which is a dwarf galaxy, has an influence on the motion of stars in the Milky Way. Even astronomers estimate that the Milky Way's more massive 10,000 times spiral structure is the result of 3 collisions with the Sagittarius galaxy in the last 6 billion years.

Recent research from the Gaia data has shown that the dwarf galaxy Sagittarius has a greater influence on the Milky Way than previously thought. The ripples caused by the collisions may have triggered large-scale star formation. And presumably, this incident coincided with the formation of the Sun 4.7 billion years ago.

From existing models, it is known that the Sagittarius galaxy fell into the Milky Way 3 times. The first was around 5-6 billion years ago, then about 2 billion years ago, and the last one was around 1 billion years ago. From Gaia's observational data, when Sagittarius hit the Milky Way, there was an increase in star formation in the range of 5.7 billion years ago, 1.9 billion years ago, and 1 billion years ago. At that time, the Sagittarius galaxy was crossing the Milky Way's disc.

Ripples in Water

In this study, astronomers analyzed the luminosity, distance and color of stars in a circle 6500 light-years in diameter around the Sun for comparison with existing stellar evolution models.

Initially, the Milky Way was fairly calm and stable, after its early star formation. When equilibrium is formed, star formation occurs steadily. However, this stability is then shaken when Sagittarius falls or hits the Milky Way. As a result, the gas and dust that had calmed down became disturbed and overflowed producing ripples like water.

In some areas of the Milky Way, these ripples produce huge concentrations of gas and dust but empty other areas. The material that is in an area of ​​high density is then triggered to produce star formation.
So, the Sagittarius collision not only affected the motion of the stars in the Milky Way but also helped shape the structure of the Milky Way.

Also Read: Stellar and Black Hole Binaries Perform Danse Macabre

Birth of the Sun

It seems that the birth of the Sun and the planets around it were actually triggered by the collision of the Sagittarius galaxy. It is not certain whether the gas cloud that formed the sun collapsed due to the collision of the Sagittarius galaxy. However, the collision and the formation of the Sun happened at the same time so it is possible that it could.

In each collision, the Sagittarius Galaxy experiences loss as gas and dust. As a result, the dwarf galaxy is getting smaller. Allegedly, this dwarf galaxy has just passed through the Milky Way in a few hundred million years and is still quite close. Not only that, it was also found that there was an explosion of star formation at that time.