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Posts published in “ASTRONOMY”

Best Observatory in the World

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Best Observatory in the World - For those of you who really like the world of astronomy and want to explore it, you must be familiar with the term observatory. An observatory is a facility that is permanently placed in a certain place with the aim of making it easier to observe and research things related to outer space. Best Observatory in the World 1. Greenwich Observatory, England The Royal Observatory Greenwich is one of the best observatories owned by the UK. As written in the Britannica, the observatory was founded in 1675 by the King of England, Charles II. At that time, this ancient observatory served as a place for observing star positions, navigation, timekeeping, and almanac (calendar) publications. During the 1997 financial crisis, there were cost cuts which resulted in the observatory closing in 1998. Today, the Greenwich Observatory is open to the public and is included in one of the facilities in the National Maritime Museum. This space observation spot is frequented by astronomy-loving tourists from all over the world every year. 2. Paranal Observatory, Chile If one day you travel to Chile, you can visit one of the world's best observatories called The Paranal Observatory. This observatory was built quite magnificently and has advanced technology. Astronomic Tourism on its website writes that this facility building was erected at an altitude of 2,630 meters above sea level. Inaugurated by the president of Chile in 1996 ago, the construction of this observatory has cost Rp. 3.3 trillion. No kidding, this observatory is equipped with 4 VLT (Very Large Telescope) and 1 VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) unit. The advantage of this telescope is that it can see the expanse of bright objects in the sky evenly with high resolution so that celestial objects can be seen in detail.
Also Read :Rare Astronomical Events Today
3. Mauna Kea Observatory, United States The world's best state-of-the-art observatory is located in Hawaii, United States. This astronomical research facility is located on an area of ​​525 hectares with a height of 4,205 meters above sea level. This altitude was chosen because it is true that observations or observations of outer space will be maximized if they are carried out without light pollution. From the official website, obtained a lot of scientific research on astronomy. These observations have even been published in scientific journals in collaboration with NASA. The observatory, which was built in 1901, has state-of-the-art facilities and equipment. NASA is actively helping to complete other technologies and equipment, such as telescopes and computers. Then, several instruments donated by the US air force made the Mauna Kea Observatory one of the most complete and most advanced observatories in the world.

Rare Astronomical Events Today

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Rare Astronomical Events Today - Often interesting phenomena occur in the sky, not infrequently many even perpetuate them. Some astronomical phenomena are usually worth a step 1. Comet Lovejoy This comet was first discovered by Lovejoy, an Australian astronomer. In early 2011, NASA said that the comet Lovejoy had 'hit' the sun. However, in fact this comet twice the size of a football field did not literally hit the sun, but only reached its closest point from the sun, about 140 thousand kilometers. Remarkably, this comet survived as long as it passed through the hot atmosphere of the sun. Comet 'collisions' with the sun are not new, but they are quite rare. And generally, ends with the collapse of the comet. Rare Astronomical Events Today 2. Transit of Venus Venus once passed in front of the sun as well as between the sun and the earth. Make it like a black dot in the sun. This is called a transit of Venus. Venus transit phenomena always occur in pairs, with a patterned span of about 8 years. The events that occurred in 2004 and 2012 are indeed quite rare. A similar Venus transit pair will occur again in about 105 years, namely in 2117 and 2125. 3. Tetrad Bloodmoon This event is quite rare. During the calculation of the Gregorian calendar, this event only happened seven times. A similar event is expected to return in 2033.
Also Read : Unique Facts of Meteors in the Sky
4. Perseids Meteor Shower and Delta Aquarids This incident occurred in July-August 2013. This meteor shower occurs as a result of the earth's passing with a cluster of dust remnants of comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle. The burning dust as it enters the earth's atmosphere also makes it a meteor shower. While the Delta Aquarids meteor shower is a meteor shower that comes from the fragments of comets Marsden and Kracht Sungrazing. The Perseids meteor shower is expected to return to Earth in 2136.

Unique Facts of Meteors in the Sky

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Unique Facts of Meteors in the Sky - Shooting stars or commonly called meteors are a rare phenomenon. Where there is an explosion of fire in the sky and the pieces fall into the earth's atmosphere at a very high speed. Meteors that fall at night are very visible like shooting stars. Here are facts about meteors in the sky. 1. Meteor Characteristics Meteors are meteoroids that enter the atmosphere and experience friction with the atmosphere. These meteoroids are solid celestial bodies that are small and less than 10 meters in diameter. While celestial bodies with a size of more than 10 meters, referred to as asteroids. 2. There are millions of meteors Do you know? It turns out that there are millions of meteors in the sky, friends. This number is due to the millions of meteoroids that move closer to Earth's atmosphere every day. 3. Meteors Called Shooting Stars For friends who have heard the term shooting star, this is actually a meteor, lo. Why are meteors then called shooting stars? Apparently, the meteor that looks in the night sky and looks like a shooting star does look like a shooting star or a star that has moved. Meteors that cross the Earth will be seen clearly at night, while during the day, meteors are more difficult to see.
Also Read : Rarely Known Moon Facts
4. Meteor Shower Apart from falling meteors, there is also the term 'meteor shower'. Have you guys ever heard of it? A meteor shower is the appearance of a number of meteors in the same part of the sky for a certain period of time. Well, some of these meteor showers that occur are related to comets. Comets will leave debris as they orbit around the solar system. This debris then becomes a meteor when it enters the atmosphere. 5. There are Dozens of Meteor Showers Every Year Friends, of course you still remember that there are millions of meteors in the sky, right? The millions of meteors in the sky also cause meteor showers to occur many times. In fact, every year it is estimated that around 30 meteor showers can be seen from Earth, lo. Some meteor showers last very long, some even lasting more than 100 years.

Rarely Known Moon Facts

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Rarely Known Moon Facts - As we all know, the moon is a celestial body that can emit its own light at night. The round shape of the moon was able to light up the night. The moon can be seen with the naked eye at night. The info, the moon is a celestial body that is very close to the earth. Here are some facts about the moon that are rarely known. 1.Origin of the month The moon was created when a rock the size of Mars hit Earth, shortly after the solar system began to form about 4.5 billion years ago. 2. Moon locked in orbit Perhaps the coolest thing about the moon is that it always shows us the same 'face' surface. Since the Earth and moon rotate and orbit, how did this happen? Long ago, the effect of Earth's gravity slowed the rotation of the moon around its axis. Once the moon's rotation slows down enough to match its orbital period (the time it takes the moon to circle the earth), the effect stabilizes. Many moons around other planets behave similarly. What about phases? Here's how it works: As the moon orbits Earth, it spends some of its time between us and the Sun, and half the light away from us. This is called the new moon. (So ​​there's no such thing as a "dark side of the moon," only the side we never see.) As the moon rotates in its orbit, a thin sliver of reflected sunlight is visible on Earth as a crescent moon. As soon as the Moon is opposite the Sun, it becomes brightly lit in our view - the full moon.
Also Read : The Discovery of a Rapidly Shrinking Planet
3. Moon... tree? More than 400 trees on Earth are from the moon. All right: They came from lunar orbit. The truth is that in 1971, Apollo 14 astronaut Stuart Roosa carried a bundle of seeds with him, while Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell were busy strolling the surface, Roosa guarding the seeds. Then, the seed was brought back to earth and planted in various places throughout the land, and was later called the moon tree. The condition of the trees is fine. 4. Earth Moon Sister The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. Well? Probably not. In 1999, scientists discovered that an asteroid 3 miles (5 kilometers) wide may be trapped in the grip of Earth's gravity, thus becoming a satellite of our planet. 5. Space stone The cratered surface of the moon is the result of a massive blow from space rocks between 4.1 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. These war scars, which appear as craters, have not eroded much for two main reasons. The moon is not very active geologically, so earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building do not destroy the landscape as they do on Earth; and with almost no atmosphere, no wind or rain, so very little surface erosion occurs. 6. The moon is shaped like an egg The moon is not round. The moon is shaped like an egg. If you go outside and look up, one of the small ends is pointing right at you. And the moon's center of mass is not at the satellite's geometric center; it's about 1.2 miles (2 kilometers) from the center.

The Discovery of a Rapidly Shrinking Planet

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The Discovery of a Rapidly Shrinking Planet - After going through several stages of the screening process, we are finally able to enhance the article we have collected with data from reliable sources on the discovery of a rapidly shrinking alien planet. In this universe, there are several planets outside the solar system of the Milky Way that are unique and rare. Astronomers call these planets hot-Neptune or Hot Neptune. Of all the 3,869 exoplanets that have been discovered, only a few are hot-Neptune. Now, recently, astronomers discovered that there is a planet that is shrinking by itself! Is the exoplanet Gliese 3470 b (GJ 3470 b). The planet is losing its atmosphere at an extreme rate, faster than any other exoplanet has observed.

1. The puzzle of why a planet can shrink

Space science media Hubblesite (13/12) reports that looking at how fast the planet GJ 3470 b is shrinking due to evaporation, it gives astronomers a hypothesis about why the number of planets that are considered hot-Neptune is so few. You see, the planets shrink into mini-Neptune, one of the most common types of exoplanets found. "The question then becomes, where did the hot Neptune go?" said astronomer Vincent Bourrier of the University of Geneva, Switzerland, as quoted by Hubblesite. "If we examine the size of the planet and its distance from the star, there must be desert and holes in the process. That's the puzzle."

2. Comparison with previous findings

A hot-Neptune planet is indeed in the form of a hot giant planet with a large mass like Neptune or Uranus. However, these hot-Neptune planets are closer to their host star than Earth and the sun. Given its proximity, astronomers recorded the atmospheric temperature as high as 927 degrees Celsius (1,700 Fahrenheit). Previously, astronomers discovered the exoplanet Gliese 436 b which experienced the same symptoms of evaporation. However, the rate of evaporation is not as fast as the exoplanet GJ 3470 b that was recently discovered. Astronomers have found that the distance between GJ 3470 b and its parent star is the same as GJ 436 b. However, GJ 3470 b is losing its atmosphere 100 times faster than GJ 436 b. This happens because the planet GJ 3470 b orbits a star that is much younger than the star GJ 436 b. The star GJ 3470 b is clearly still emitting much hotter radiation.
Also Read: The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions

3. Can shrink to the size of the planet Earth

Through the Hubble telescope, astronomers have found that there are hydrogen clouds entering the planet GJ3470 b. If that continues, planet GJ 3470 b could end up as a mini-Neptune, or even the size of Earth. "It's like smoke from a firearm. Hot-Neptune planets could lose most of their total mass," said physicist and planetary scientist David Sing of Johns Hopkins University. "GJ 3470b is losing more mass than any other planet we've seen so far. In just a few billion years from now, half of this planet may be lost."

4. Understand the behavior of the planet and its environment

As quoted by the media Phys, David Sing estimates that GJ 3470 b may have lost up to 35 percent of its total mass and, within a few billion years, all the surrounding gas will be lost and will eventually leave only a rocky core. "We're starting to better understand how planets form and what properties affect their overall makeup," said Sing. "Our goal with this study and the overall PanCET program is to take a broad look at the atmospheres of these planets to determine how each planet is affected by its own environment. By comparing different planets, we can begin to collect a bigger picture of the way they develop. "

The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions

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The Formation of the Solar System from Galactic Collisions - The following is an article that discusses collisions between solar systems that trigger the formation of the solar system which has been summarized from reliable sources. Astronomers already know that the smaller Sagittarius galaxy repeatedly crashes into the disk of the Milky Way as it orbits around the galactic core. This is caused by the force of gravity. In previous research, the Sagittarius galaxy, which is a dwarf galaxy, has an influence on the motion of stars in the Milky Way. Even astronomers estimate that the Milky Way's more massive 10,000 times spiral structure is the result of 3 collisions with the Sagittarius galaxy in the last 6 billion years. Recent research from the Gaia data has shown that the dwarf galaxy Sagittarius has a greater influence on the Milky Way than previously thought. The ripples caused by the collisions may have triggered large-scale star formation. And presumably, this incident coincided with the formation of the Sun 4.7 billion years ago. From existing models, it is known that the Sagittarius galaxy fell into the Milky Way 3 times. The first was around 5-6 billion years ago, then about 2 billion years ago, and the last one was around 1 billion years ago. From Gaia's observational data, when Sagittarius hit the Milky Way, there was an increase in star formation in the range of 5.7 billion years ago, 1.9 billion years ago, and 1 billion years ago. At that time, the Sagittarius galaxy was crossing the Milky Way's disc. Ripples in Water In this study, astronomers analyzed the luminosity, distance and color of stars in a circle 6500 light-years in diameter around the Sun for comparison with existing stellar evolution models. Initially, the Milky Way was fairly calm and stable, after its early star formation. When equilibrium is formed, star formation occurs steadily. However, this stability is then shaken when Sagittarius falls or hits the Milky Way. As a result, the gas and dust that had calmed down became disturbed and overflowed producing ripples like water. In some areas of the Milky Way, these ripples produce huge concentrations of gas and dust but empty other areas. The material that is in an area of ​​high density is then triggered to produce star formation. So, the Sagittarius collision not only affected the motion of the stars in the Milky Way but also helped shape the structure of the Milky Way.
Also Read: Stellar and Black Hole Binaries Perform Danse Macabre
Birth of the Sun It seems that the birth of the Sun and the planets around it were actually triggered by the collision of the Sagittarius galaxy. It is not certain whether the gas cloud that formed the sun collapsed due to the collision of the Sagittarius galaxy. However, the collision and the formation of the Sun happened at the same time so it is possible that it could. In each collision, the Sagittarius Galaxy experiences loss as gas and dust. As a result, the dwarf galaxy is getting smaller. Allegedly, this dwarf galaxy has just passed through the Milky Way in a few hundred million years and is still quite close. Not only that, it was also found that there was an explosion of star formation at that time.